The revised 2020 publication of incoterms includes the DAP rule, wherein the seller is responsible for unloading of goods at the nominated place. Here, his liability for the risk and cost of goods rests with him till the designated port, after which the duty shifts to the buyer.
DAP stands for ‘Delivery at Place’, and this incoterm can be used for any form of transport or even for more than one mode of transport. Under DAP terms, the seller and the buyer have to agree on the place of destination.
Likewise, the terms of unloading at the designated place should be indicated by the buyer as the cost of unloading will be borne by him, along with the importing charges and other local charges.
The incoterm DDU (Delivered Duty Unpaid) has been made inactive in incoterms 2020 -- the closest term that describes the functions of DDU incoterms under the revised guidelines is DAP.
Seller’s liability lies till the designated port, so his responsibility starts right from the place of origin, i.e., inland transport from the warehouse to the first port (exporter’s country) and then carriage proceedings from the first port to the nominated port (importer’s country).
The seller pays for freight as he is liable for carriage till the destination port as well as the inland transit from the warehouse to the port. This can be either road transport or rail transport, and the shipping proceedings from the first port to the designated port are to be carried out by the seller.
DAP does include insurance. The seller can pay for coverage for damage to goods till the designated port, and also take marine insurance if the goods are to be moved by ocean/sea. As the risk and damage to goods stays with the seller till the goods are delivered at the designated port, he is liable for the insurance of goods under DAP.
Export customs and related duties are carried by the seller. He is answerable for all necessary documents, i.e., bill of lading, commercial invoice, insurance certificate, packing list, marine insurance, insurance certificate, etc. for customs proceedings. All charges for export proceedings will be borne by the seller.
The buyer has responsibility for unloading goods at the destination country’s port. Later, inland transit of goods from the designated port to his owned warehouse is also a part of his responsibility.
The price for carriage is already paid by the seller so the only liability for the buyer is to take care of import customs proceedings and inland transit till his own warehouse.
The buyer has no obligation for insurance as the risk of damage to goods is the seller's responsibility till the goods arrive at his country’s port.
The import customs proceedings are the responsibility of the buyer. So the evidence of documents provided by the seller are to be acknowledged by the buyer. As mentioned earlier, the unloading of goods at the destination port is the buyer’s responsibility. He will be held chargeable for all the customs formalities.